5G protocol or NR protocol stack is very much similar to the LTE (4G) protocol stack. We have designed this tutorial series keeping in mind it will give advantage to all the categories of users including and not limited to researchers, professionals, scientists, and students. On one side, users will get a good quality of service and on the other hand, operators can make more money by incorporating new value-added services. User data is sent/ forwarded through the user plane. shown in 5G protocol stack. 5G New Radio (NR) is the global standard for a unified, more capable 5G wireless air interface. As we know we can not live without modern wireless technologies. The projects include 5G-NORMA, 5G-ENSURE, CHARISMA, COGNET, XHAUL, mmMAGIC, This site is for everything on 5G/NR. 5th Generation and more specifically called as the 5G millimeter wave channel sounding 5G NR PDCP layer, ➤THREAD    However, we have compiled some of the very important ones and presented below. The new mobile network technology has already begun using the current architecture of LTE to support non-standalone (NSA) 5G, on the way to full standalone (SA) infrastructure that does not rely on 4G. ➤WHDI    This generation of cellular networks will improve throughput, reduce delay, provide better coverage and enhance other key performance metrics. One of the deployment scenarios that is supported from the start of 5G NR work in 3GPP is to allow LTE-M and NB-IoT transmissions to be placed directly into a 5G NR … 5G-NR non-standalone Message Details - HTMLThe 5G non-standalone dual connectivity message and … Have a look at the below figures to easily understand and get an overview of it. Since NR will cover a wide range of use cases, it is likely that the set of supported modulation schemes may expand. This article describes 5G NR physical layer. network elements.5G NR (New Radio) architecture as per 3GPP document published in dec. 2017 is also described. Improve the coverage for cell-edge users. 5G NR scales from cellular to mm-wave frequency bands (Credit: Qualcomm) 5G builds on LTE and adds support for multiple sub-carrier spacings … This 5G physical layer description is as per 3GPP physical layer specifications. For mobile phones to be mobile, the most important and fundamental technology involved is wireless technology. It will deliver significantly faster and more responsive mobile broadband experiences, and extend mobile technology to connect and redefine a multitude of new industries. • Better QoS(Quality of Service) It uses smart antenna techniques to support higher data rate and coverage. Below is an image of the overall architecture of 5G as per 3GPP specification  3GPP TS 38.300. Now, let's discuss the architecture of 5G (NR). INTRODUCTION In recently finalized release-15 5Gnew radio (NR) access technology standards by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), two new physical-layer channel coding schemes of polar and low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been introduced to replace … The 5G-PPP will provide next generation solutions, technologies, standards, architectures to ➤SIGFOX    However, the layers above the PDCP layer are different. 5G NR (New Radio) architecture. Now, let's go one step deeper and have a look at the internal details of the protocol stack. Presentation by Paresh Khatri at APRICOT 2019 on Wednesday, 27 February 2019. ➤NFC   Increase the revenue of network operators and service providers. The 5G technology makes use of all the existing cellular wireless technologies(2G, 3G and 4G). Now, after understanding what is 5G, few general questions may arise in your mind, which are: Difference between 4G and 5G Remember, there are endless features and advantage that 5G can provide. QuickReference - 5G/NR Home : www.sharetechnote.com Pre 5G Chronicles 5G NR overall architecture is shown in the following figure-2. What is 5G NR? RANs supported by 5G architecture are GSM, GPRS/EDGE, UMTS, LTE, LTE-advanced, WiMAX, WiFi, CDMA2000, EV-DO, CDMA One, IS-95 etc. 5G has made it possible to use mobile phone with larger bandwidth possible. Refer 5G NR PHY >>. The NR specification is designed with a high degree of flexibility to cover a diverse set of applications. Scalable 5G NR slot duration for diverse latency/QoS 1. Formula or equation for 5G NR throughput calculation According to 3GPP TS 38.306, the approximate maximum data transfer rate is calculated using the following equation. A very good upload and download speed, which will provide an experience like a broadband connection. And this has given birth to the new generation of cellular networks called 5G. Enhance the Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE). in developing countries where electric power cuts are very common. Symbols across numerologies align at symbol boundaries and transmissions span an integer # of OFDM symbols 14 OFDM symbols per slot with mini-slot (2, 4, or 7 symbols) for shorter transmissions1 This 5G tutorial is suitable for all the categories of users, irrespective of whether you are a beginner or an expert. It provides about 100 Mbps at full mobility and 1 Gbps at low mobility. They both have the common structure for PHY, MAC, RLC, and PDCP layers as shown in the figure. This page describes overview of 5G NR RLC layer including functions. This 5G tutorial also covers following sub topics on the 5G technology: ➤Lonworks   At last our aim to share the knowledge of latest technologies and if you are technology enthusiastic, definitely you will enjoy this tutorial. 5G, the next generation of cellular networks, currently a very hot topic and an amazing area to learn and research. The 5G transport channels include xBCH, xDL-SCH, xRACH, xUL-SCH etc. • Flexible architecture based on SDR(Software Defined Radio). 5G-NR non-standalone access (with EPC flow)Adds details on how the EPC deals with dual connectivity subscribers. It covers 5G NR RLC modes (TM mode,UM mode, AM mode),data structures (TMD, UMD, AMD),RLC PDUs (TMD PDU, UMD PDU, AMD PDU), Module 1: 5G NR network deployment is now - let´s test With 5G NR network rollout underway around the globe, the challenge for operators is to overcome the challenge of a more demanding and complex air interface and deliver the commercial and technical benefits offered by 5G. The 5G NR uplink has used a different format to 4G LTE. 5G mm wave frame However, with an exponential increase in data demand, the advent of new applications like Augmented Reality (AR), Ultra Fast File Transfer, and Virtual Reality (VR) games which require multi-gigabit data rates, these older technologies are not sufficient. I. Data PDU and Control PDU formats of PDCP layer etc. • Ultimate download and upload speed provides user great experience like broadband cable internet As low as two symbols per mini-slot; 2. 5G enables Enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), Ultra-reliable and low latency communications (URLLC), and Massive machine-type communications (mMTC). 5G is the short form of 5th Generation. We’re leading the charge to 5G NR. Refer 5G Channel Types >>. • Better coverage and high data rates at the edge of cell. Understanding the 5G NR Physical Layer Understanding the 5G NR Physical Layer 3 Low Latency Mini-Slots CBG Retransmissions Front-Loaded DMRS Future Proof –Forward Compatible Bandwidth Parts Reduced Always-On Signals No Fixed Time Relationship Between Channels Waveforms and Frame Structure Scalable Numerology Numerology Multiplexing Dynamic TDD It is beneficial for the government, as it can make the governance easier; for the students, as it can make available the advanced data transfers (TM, UM and AM) and RRC parameters which defines RLC layer. featutes to the users and providers of this technology. We have designed this tutorial keeping you as a beginner in this domain. Now, let's discuss 5G important key performance metrics (KPIs) and what are the expected values for these metrics. Refer 5G NR interfaces >>. 5G NR (5G New Radio). 5G Toolbox in the context of the 5G NR user plane protocol stack. A Work Item of the detailed specifications of 5G RAN for 5G commercial services is being conducted in 3GPP. Refer 5G NR RLC Layer >>. It has been initiated by EU commission, manufacturers, operators, researchers and SMEs. Stacks of both control and user plane have almost the same structure. These changes are upgraded in such a way that operators and end-users can get benefitted. Don't worry! This tutorial provides a technical overview of key technology components in 5G standards which facilitate spectrum reuse and sharing both within and across different categories of wireless systems. It has many advanced features potential enough to solve many of the problems of our mundane life. used to provide higher throughput. 5G-NR non-standalone access (NSA)Covers the UE registration for dual connectivity followed by the 4G-eNB moving a bearer to the 5G-NR gNB. technologies. The only major difference is the uplink stack that of downlink stack is it does not have support for carrier aggregation. 5G is the Fifth Generation technology. Refer 5G NR network interfaces which include Xn interface, NG interface, E1 interface, F1 interface and F2 interface. • Multiple data transfer paths concurrently. Figure 1 The 5G Radio Access architecture is composed of LTE Evolution and a New Radio Access Technology (NR) which is not backwards compatible with LTE and is operable from sub-1 GHz to 100 GHz. Illustrate the overall 5G system architecture Explain Network Slicing, Service Based Architecture (SBA), and Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) Summarize key characteristics of the New Radio (NR) air interface Differentiate between Standalone (SA) NR and Non-Standalone (NSA) NR Discuss the challenges of different spectrum bands Both indoor and outdoor wireless technologies are evolving very rapidly. 5G NR MAC procedures and format of 5G NR MAC header and subheaders. Lower the overall power consumption of the network. QuickReference - 5G/NR Home : www.sharetechnote.com Pre 5G Chronicles This page of tutorials section covers 5G tutorial basics which mentions need for 5G wireless, 5G technology features, advantages of 5G and For this 5G tutorial, you will not need any prior experience or knowledge as such. It covers 5G NR MAC functions, 5G NR MAC architecture, 5G NR MAC channel mapping, It has many advanced features potential enough to solve many of the problems of our mundane life. 5G millimeter wave tutorial 5G New Radio (NR) is the global standard for a unified, more capable 5G wireless air interface. The non-standalone NR specifications, which enable early deployment of NR carriers by exploiting LTE/LTE-Advanced carriers as the master node carriers, were completed in December 2017. It is used to cover wide area and As shown 5G network uses flat IP concept so that different RANs (Radio Access Networks) can use the same single Nanocore for communication. 5G is the abbreviation generally used for Refer 5G NR interfaces >>. 5G is the Fifth Generation technology. What are the advantages of 5G? • Better revenue for the service providers. Tutorial #6 – Millimeter-wave Beam Management for 5G-NR and Beyond. • Cheaper fees due to lower costs of deployment infrastructure ➤UPB, ©RF Wireless World 2012, RF & Wireless Vendors and Resources, Free HTML5 Templates, Unified IP, seamless integration of broadband, LAN/PAN/WAN/WLAN and 5G based technologies, wearable devices, dynamic information access, HD streaming, smooth global roaming, flatter IP network, 5G network interfacing (5G-NI). Multiple data transfer paths and sessions. Beamforming is the manipulation of the signals fed to and received from complex antennas to create beams in … The 5G logical channels include xBCCH, xCCCH, xDCCH, xDTCH etc. 5G testing and test equipments You can visit the offficial website of these projects to learn more about it. ➤CEBus   5G has set a new standard for wireless, opening up the spectrum above 6 GHz that has been previously unusable by cellular services. 5G Core (5GC) network architecture implementation doesn't exactly follow the network evolution upgrade path as previously followed by 2G, 3G and 4G networks and this is what makes 5G Architecture very different from its predecessors. INTRODUCTION In recently finalized release-15 5Gnew radio (NR) access technology standards by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), two new physical-layer channel coding schemes of polar and low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been introduced to replace convolutional and Turbo … Similar to 4G (LTE), depending upon the direction of data to be processed, 5G radio protocol stack has two categories: If the type of data is signaling or controlling message, then it is sent/forwarded through the control plane. Refer 5G network architecture >>. It is a packet switched wireless system. N BW (j),μ P RB.12 T μ s (1− OH (j))) 10 − 6 ∑ j = 1 J (v L a y e r s (j). We can observe in the below figure that the basic structure of both uplink and downlink is very much similar. An overview of channel coding for 5G NR cellular communications - Volume 8. It uses CDMA, BDMA and also millimeter wave(for backhaul wireless connectivity). Process 5G NR DL-SCH and UL-SCH transport blocks using LDPC coding. The 5G layer-1 is PHYSICAL Layer. Learn about the benefits of 5G NR communications system and the scope of 5G Toolbox. There was a time when people communicated using handwritten letters, used to send them manually but now the time has radically changed, we have mobile phones and it is impossible to live without them even for a single day. 5G NR MAC layer It is used to designate fifth generation of mobile Additionally, 5G NR provides for the use of flexible subcarrier spacing. ➤EnOcean    It is beneficial for the government, as it can make the governance easier; for the … • Harmless to human health The design challenge to create a network architecture capable of supporting such flexibility whilst meeting differentiated access demands is a brave endeavor to satisfy. This page describes overview of 5G NR MAC layer. 5G NR can provide the data rate up to 1 Gbps to the stationary user (in Low mobility) and up to 100 Mbps to the mobile users (in high mobility). 5G NR Physical layer However in NR, both Downlink Scheduling DCI (i.e, DCI 1_0, 1_1) and Uplink Scheduling DCI (i.e, DCI 0_0, 0_1) carries the field HARQ Processor Number since they both use Asychronous HARQ. key 5G projects. PDCP procedures for data transfer during transmit/receive operation, Presentation by Paresh Khatri at APRICOT 2019 on Wednesday, 27 February 2019. Various projects based on 5G are in progress and are administered and managed by 5G-PPP. Higher system throughput and data rates to end-users. What Is 5G New Radio? The world has completely transformed after the advent of this wonderful technology. Moreover, the standardization study of NOMA schemes for 5G New Radio (NR) continues within 3GPP LTE Release 15 . 5G has set a new standard for wireless, opening up the spectrum above 6 GHz that has been previously unusable by cellular services. 5G-NR Tutorials and Call Flows 5G-NR call flows, 4G-5G dual connectivity and 5G architecture 5G-NR Call Flows 5G-NR Non Standalone Access Flow (EN-DC) LTE support for 5G dual connectivity will enable 4G network operators to introduce 5G services with a minimual upgrade to support 5G data plane. About 5G. 5G-NR non-standalone access (NSA)Covers the UE registration for dual connectivity followed by the 4G-eNB moving a bearer to the 5G-NR gNB. This site is for everything on 5G/NR. (5G, LTE, and Wi-Fi), and coordinate different site types (macro, micro, and pico base stations). CP-OFDM- and DFT-S-OFDM-based waveforms are used in the uplink. Carrier aggregation is supported in NR from the start. Instructor: Danijela Cabric, UCLA, USA Instructor: Han Yan, UCLA, USA Abstract: Millimeter wave (mmWave) communications with massive antenna array is key technique for the future cellular systems. Moreover personal area network based technologies such as wifi, bluetooth and zigbee have become In NR, data for each carrier is processed independently in SDAP layer, PDCP layer, RLC layer and is basically multiplexed in MAC layer. I. It uses improved and advanced data coding/modulation techniques. 5G i About the Tutorial 5G is the Fifth Generation technology. Below is the figure of downlink L2 (layer 2) stack. Refer 5G NR PDCP Layer >>. Refer 5G network architecture➤ more more description of 5G network. It has many advanced features potential enough to solve many of the problems of our mundane life. More flexible architecture by making use of SDN (Software Defined Networks) and Network functions virtualization (NFV). Course Description. This is what has made our life simple and effortless. 5G NR has a much more advanced concept of beamforming than LTE. The 5G New Radio (NR) standard uses OFDM on both the uplink and downlink. Find how 5G New Radio (NR) impacts the field testing and assessment of QoE and radio network performance and learn the 5G NR key technological concepts. fifth generation of Cellular Network technology. 2G, 3G and 4G cellular wireless technologies have been mass deployed throughout the world. The deployment of 5G/NR is currently one of the highest priorities of advanced Mobile Network Operators. The main aim is to develop an intuition of how the 5G protocol stack looks like. 5G-NR non-standalone Message Details - HTMLThe 5G non-standalone dual connectivity message and action details in HTML format. One important thing we can note here that the structure of LTE L2 and NR L2 is very much similar except that one new layer, SDAP, is added in NR. In 5G, Network Management is envisioned to be Software-driven and Network functions & resources are virtualized at the Edges and Core. • Low battery power consumption. • Most of the devices such as 5G dongle works on USB power and hence better be used for telecommunications. Flexible Timing between Data Transmission and HARQ response : In LTE the timing between data transmission and HARQ response is fixed. In addition, 3GPP has included л/2-BPSK in UL to enable a further reduced peak-to-average power ratio and enhanced power-amplifier efficiency at lower data rates, which is important for mMTC services, for example. Refer 5G NR MAC Layer >>. This makes our life cosy and easy. 5G Frequency Bands What is 5G NR? According to standard organization 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project), it is defined as This page describes overview of 5G NR PDCP layer including functions. 5G New Radio Throughput or Data Rate (Mbps)= 10−6 J ∑ j=1(v(j) Layers.Q(j) m.f (j).Rmax. ➤LoRa    5G channel types cover logical channels and transport channels used in uplink and downlink with mapping between them. This tutorial provides a technical overview of key technology components in 5G standards which facilitate spectrum reuse and sharing both within and across different categories of wireless systems. An overview of channel coding for 5G NR cellular communications - Volume 8. The 5G layer-2 include MAC, RLC and PDCP.The 5G layer-3 is RRC layer as The preceding cellular mobile technologies 4G (4th Generation, known as LTE), 3G (3rd Generation, known as UMTS), 2G (known as GSM) have been deployed successfully in masses all around the world, covering all the geographies. It covers PDCP architecture (structure, entities), 5G NR or 5G New Radio is the new radio air interface being developed for 5G mobile communications. 5G network architecture 5G NR architecture is extremely advanced and very much different from 4G architecture. The physical layer processing for 5G NR PDSCH channel and 5G NR PUSCH channel have been covered stepwise. These use cases are defined by ITU-R (ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R)) and are the three most important use cases for 5G. 5G-PPP is the short form of 5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership. Technology Advantages and Important Features, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) / Beam Division Multiple Access (BDMA), 5G network interfacing (5G-NI), Flatter IP network. 5G NR overall architecture is shown in the following figure-2. This is as defined in the 3GPP TS 38.300 specification. The new mobile network technology has already begun using the current architecture of LTE to support non-standalone (NSA) 5G, on the way to full standalone (SA) infrastructure that does not rely on 4G. Refer 2G vs 3G, 3G vs 4G, and 4G vs 5G. • Higher system spectral efficiency 5G-NR non-standalone access (with EPC flow)Adds details on how the EPC deals with dual connectivity subscribers. SPEED-5G, Flex5Gware, FANTASTIC 5G etc. Now, let's discuss the structure of NR L2 user plane ( U-Plane) uplink protocol. It will deliver significantly faster and more responsive mobile broadband experiences, and extend mobile technology to connect and redefine a multitude of new industries. predominant in our daily life. To tackle several new applications, network elements, interfaces, various other entities are re-designed and fundamentally upgraded. The world has compressed due to advent of wireless technologies. Be it an end-user, operator, researcher, everyone is interested in knowing about this new technology. What are the features of 5G? Apart from high throughput it provides following These projects are inititited and handled by operators, EU commision, manufacturers, FANTASTIC 5G, etc. • More secure • Interoperability will become feasible and easier. 5G Toolbox and the 5G NR Protocol Layers. Featured Examples 5G i About the Tutorial 5G is the Fifth Generation technology. The GSMA says: “5G NR was designed to support diverse deployment models, spectrum usage and device capabilities. To know how we calculated throughput for 5G New Radio (NR), please do read our following post Downlink Spectral Efficiency = 2.31 x 10^9 bps / 100 x 10^6 Hz = 23 bits/second/Hz Uplink Spectral Efficiency = 2.47 x 10^6 bps / 100 x 10^6 Hz = 24 bits /second / Hz